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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 52-61

Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subsets in alcoholic liver disease


1 Department of Pathology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Medicine, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Microbiology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
M Banyameen Iqbal
Department of Pathology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Center, Pune - 411 018, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jms.jms_43_18

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Background: The World Health Organization defines alcohol-related diseases as the third major cause of death and disability worldwide accounting for approximately 2.5 million deaths per year. Immune dysregulation has possible role for pathogenesis of alcohol liver injury. We aimed to study lymphocyte subsets in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was done over 2 years in a tertiary care hospital in Western Maharashtra. The cases were classified into four groups: nonalcoholics (n = 18), fatty liver (n = 13), alcoholic hepatitis (n = 11), and alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 51). ALD was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography and liver function tests. Blood sample collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was run on electronic cell counter for total leukocyte count and on flow cytometer for CD45, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ counts. Results: Hemoglobin and platelet count showed a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.0001) from nonalcoholics to fatty liver to hepatitis to cirrhotic patients. There was a significant alteration in liver function tests in ALD. Total leukocyte count and lymphocytes were reduced; however, it was not statistically significant. CD3+ (1745.41 ± 917.57–1021.43 ± 500.71/cumm), CD4+ (903.41 ± 401.83–634.45 ± 309.11/cumm), and CD8+ (818.06 ± 584.31–393.9 ± 258.49/cumm) showed decreasing trend. CD4+/CD8+ ratio was progressively increased (1.39 ± 0.66–1.91 ± 0.89) from nonalcoholics to alcoholic cirrhosis. Conclusion: In this study, we found a decrease in the concentration of lymphocytes and its subpopulation (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) while as CD4+/CD8+ ratio was comparatively increased in ALD patients in comparison to nonalcoholics. These findings signify an immune dysregulation in ALD.


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