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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 86-90

Fecal–oral-transmitted hepatitis A and E prevalence in Eastern India: A 3-year retrospective study


Department of Microbiology, Sriram Chandra Bhanj Medical College and Hospital, Utkal University, Cuttack, Odisha, India

Correspondence Address:
Muktikesh Dash
Department of Microbiology, Sriram Chandra Bhanj Medical College and Hospital, Utkal University, Cuttack - 753 007, Odisha
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jms.jms_67_17

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Background: Enterically transmitted hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are responsible for sporadic and epidemic forms of acute hepatitis globally. Objectives: This retrospective 3-year study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HAV, HEV, and coinfection and its seasonal variations, age- and residence-specific epidemiological characteristics in a tertiary care hospital, Eastern India. Materials and Methods: Serum samples from clinically suspected acute viral hepatitis cases were collected at peripheral levels and sent to the Department of Microbiology maintaining precautions. These were processed for the detection of HAV- and HEV-specific Immunoglobulin M antibodies carried out by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays method. Data were analyzed using GraphPad QuickCalcs statistical software Inc, USA. Results: The seroprevalence of HAV (54.3%) was higher than HEV (43.5%), and the coinfection rate was low (2.2%). The HAV infection was most commonly seen in pediatric and adolescent age group (≤18 years) whereas HEV infection in adults (P < 0.0001). The HAV outbreaks were commonly occurred in rural areas in comparison to HEV in urban areas (P < 0.0001). Both HAV and HEV cases were reported throughout the year. Conclusion: The enteric viral hepatitis cases are highly prevalent, and outbreaks have occurred throughout the year in coastal plains of Eastern India. There is a need for screening of HAV and HEV, especially among pregnant women and improving levels of personal hygiene. The data generated from this study will help the local authorities to plan for future vaccination strategies, improvement in sanitation program, and safe water supply to the needy population.


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