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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 158-161

Frequency and distribution of blood groups in tribal blood donors of Tripura


1 Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Agartala Government Medical College, G B Pant Hospital, Agartala, Tripura, India
2 Department of Pathology, Agartala Government Medical College, G B Pant Hospital, Agartala, Tripura, India

Date of Web Publication28-Sep-2016

Correspondence Address:
Jayanta Sankar Chakrabarti
Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Agartala Government Medical College and G B Pant Hospital, Agartala - 799 006, Tripura
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-4958.191181

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  Abstract 

Background: There has been a common belief among the people of Tripura that the frequency and distribution of blood groups in tribal people of Tripura are not similar to that of other parts of India. Aims: To find out frequency and distribution of blood groups in tribal people of Tripura. Setting and Design: A data-based study carried out in a tertiary care teaching institute, Agartala. Methodology: After obtaining ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethics Committee, this study was conducted among the blood donors from tribal communities of different areas of Tripura, who donated blood from October 2012 to August 2013. ABO blood grouping was performed by forward (cell grouping) and reverse blood grouping (serum grouping) using test tube agglutination method using antisera A and antisera B. Rh blood grouping was performed by forward blood grouping (cell grouping) method using antisera D. Weak D (Du) testing were done in case of Rh negative cases. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentage and proportion. Results: Out of 508 blood donors, 421 (82.9%) were male and 87 (17.1%) were female. Majority of blood donors came from 21-40 years of age group. B (33.7%) group is in maximum numbers followed by O (30.3%) and A (24.2%) groups; whereas minimum are from AB group (11.8%). Blood donations by females are low as it is in other areas of India. Conclusion: "B" is the most frequent and "O" is the second most common blood group of ABO blood group system among the tribal blood donors of Tripura. Rh-positive donors were 94.5% and Rh negative were 5.5%.

Keywords: ABO, blood groups, rhesus


How to cite this article:
Choudhury P, Chakrabarti JS, Chowdhury PS. Frequency and distribution of blood groups in tribal blood donors of Tripura. J Med Soc 2016;30:158-61

How to cite this URL:
Choudhury P, Chakrabarti JS, Chowdhury PS. Frequency and distribution of blood groups in tribal blood donors of Tripura. J Med Soc [serial online] 2016 [cited 2020 Oct 31];30:158-61. Available from: https://www.jmedsoc.org/text.asp?2016/30/3/158/191181


  Introduction Top


Since the discovery of the ABO blood group by Landsteiner, different blood typing systems have been devised. Another important breakthrough came in 1939-1940 when Karl Landsteiner, Alex Wiener, Philip Levine, and R E Stetson discovered the rhesus blood group system, which was found to be the cause of the majority of transfusion reactions up to that time. [1] Thirty-three major blood group systems (including the AB and Rh systems) were recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) in October 2012. [2]

The ISBT definition of a blood group system is where one or more antigens are "controlled at a single gene locus or by two or more very closely linked homologous genes with little or no observable recombination between them." [3] Transfusions of blood products are associated with several complications, many of which can be grouped as immunological or infectious. There is also increasing focus (and controversy) on complications arising directly or indirectly from potential quality degradation during storage. [4] Overall, adverse events from transfusions in the USA account for about USD 17 billion and in effect add more to the cost of each transfusion than acquisition and procedure costs combined. [5] Knowledge regarding the frequency of red blood cell antigen phenotypes in a population can be helpful in the creation of a donor data bank for the preparation of indigenous cell panels and for providing antigen-negative compatible blood to patients with multiple alloantibodies. [6]


  Methodology Top


From October 2012 to August 2013, 508 numbers of voluntary and replacement donors from different tribal communities of Tripura, who were considered as medically fit, donated their blood in different voluntary blood donation camps organized in different parts of Tripura and also in blood banks located at various levels of government hospitals all over Tripura. Age range of those donors was 18-60 years. The selection criteria of those donors were strictly as per the guidelines of National AIDS Control Organisation, Government of India. [7] Methodology of ABO and Rh blood grouping was as per the Guidance Manual on ABO and Rh blood grouping of the National Institute of Biologicals, Government of India. [8] ABO blood grouping was performed by forward (cell grouping) and reverse blood grouping (serum grouping) using test tube agglutination method using antisera A and antisera B. Rh blood grouping was performed by forward blood grouping (cell grouping) method using antisera D. Monoclonal (anti-A, anti-B, anti-AB), anti-A 1 (lectin), anti-H (lectin), and monoclonal anti-D (immunoglobulin M + immunoglobulin G) antisera were used. Manufacturers of these antisera were Ranbaxy Laboratories, India, and were supplied by the Department of Health and Family Welfare, Government of Tripura. After that, with pooled known A, B, and O cells, reverse blood grouping (serum group) was done using test tube agglutination method. Final blood grouping was confirmed when both forward blood grouping and reverse blood grouping became identical. By antiglobulin technique, Rh-negative blood groups were confirmed. Weak D (Du) testing was done in all the cases of Rh-negative individuals. The blood group data were recorded in specially made pro forma, tabulated and then analysis was done for comparing with similar studies by other authors.


  Results Top


[Table 1] shows that among total 508 donors, 82.9% were male and 17.1% were female. Majority of the population of the blood donors came from the age group of 21-30 (37%).
Table 1: Age group and gender wise distribution of blood donors

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[Table 2] shows distribution of ABO blood group systems in tribal blood donors of Tripura. It shows B (33.7%) as the most frequent blood group system followed by O (30.3%) and A (24.2%) whereas AB (11.8%) as the least common blood group system.
Table 2: Distribution of ABO blood group systems

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[Table 3] shows gender wise the distribution of blood group systems. It shows that in case of male population of donors, B group is in maximum numbers followed by O and A groups whereas minimum are from AB groups. In case of female population, maximum are from B and O groups whereas minimum are from AB groups. Considering the rhesus group system, maximum numbers of donors were from Rh-positive group (94.5%) whereas 5.5% of the donors were from Rh-negative group. Among 508 numbers of donors, 421 (82.9%) numbers were male and other 87 numbers (17.1%) were female. Sex does not show any effect on the ABO and Rh blood grouping of the donors.
Table 3: Gender wise distribution of ABO and Rh blood group systems

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[Table 4] shows a comparison study on frequency of ABO and Rh phenotype (%) at different geographical areas in India as conducted by different workers.
Table 4: Comparison study on frequency of ABO and Rh phenotype (%) at different geographical areas in India

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  Discussion Top


Almost all the relevant studies within India have found that numbers of male blood donors are much more comparing to the female donors, which is in agreement with this present study. This study shows that 82.9% of donors were male and other 17.1% were female. Some authors opined that the reason of lesser number of female donors was because of social taboo, cultural habits, and lack of motivation and fear of blood donation. Moreover, some females could not be accepted as blood donors as they were suffering from nutritional anemia and low body weight. [16] In Tripura, because of better implementation of primary health-care system, less numbers of women are suffering from nutritional anemia than many other parts of India. However, as because more numbers of tribal women are afraid of blood donation, continuous motivation among the tribal population of Tripura is required in this regard so that more numbers of women participate in donation of blood in near future. Majority of blood donors came from the 21-40 years age group as they are the main workforce and as majority belong to age groups above this usually suffer from various disease conditions. The distribution of ABO blood group varies regionally, ethnically, and from one population to another. [14] Comparison study on frequency of ABO and Rh phenotype at different geographical areas in India is described in [Table 4]. Similar studies done at Eastern Ahmedabad, [9] Punjab, [12] and Western Ahmedabad [16] described "B" as the most frequent and "O" as the second most common blood group which is in agreement with this present study. Studies in the Southern India [9],[13],[14],[15] described "O" as the most frequent and "B" as the second most which are not in agreement with the present study. All these studies have described "AB" as the least common blood group which is comparable to the present study. Regarding Rh grouping, like other similar studies in India, the present study shows that more than 90% of donors are detected as Rh positive. This study does not have any forensic implication in identification of criminals.


  Conclusion Top


The present study concludes that "B" as the most frequent and "O" as the second most common blood group of ABO blood group system among the tribal blood donors of Tripura. Rh-positive donors were 94.5% and Rh negative were 5.5%. Blood donations by female tribal donors are low as it is in other areas of India. Continuous motivation among the tribal population of Tripura is required so that more numbers of women participate in donation of blood in near future. The study will help significantly in management of blood bank and transfusion services in Tripura.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Harvey GK. Why do people have different blood types. Scientific American; 7 March, 2005. Available from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-do-people-havediffer/. [Last cited on 2014 Feb 10].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
International Society of Blood Transfusion; 2012. Available from: http://www.isbtweb.org/workingparties/red-cell-immunogenetics-and-bloodgroup-terminolog/blood-group-terminology/#c579. [Last cited on 2013 May 11].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
ISBT Committee on Terminology for Red Cell Surface Antigens. Terminology Home Page; 2009. Available from: http://www.isbtweb.org/working-parties/red-cell-immunogeneticsand-blood-group-terminology/blood-groupterminology/. [Last cited on 2014 Feb 13].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Wang SS. What's the shelf life of blood? Focus on whether older donations impair recovery of transfusion recipients. Wall St J 2009. Available from: http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB1000142405274870 3939404574567771148801570. [Last accessed on 2014 Mar 12].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Shander A, Hofmann A, Gombotz H, Theusinger OM, Spahn DR. Estimating the cost of blood: Past, present, and future directions. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2007;21:271-89.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Agarwal N, Thapliyal RM, Chatterjee K. Blood group phenotype frequencies in blood donors from a tertiary care hospital in north India. Blood Res 2013;48:51-4.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Voluntary Blood Donation Programme - An Operational Guideline, National AIDS Control Organization. New Delhi: Government of India; 2007. p. 21-2.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Guidance Manual on ABO and Rh Blood Grouping, National Institute of Biologicals, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, Noida; 2013. p. 15-31.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Swamy CM, Basavaraj PB, Kavitha GU, Shashikala P. Prevalence of ABO and Rhesus blood group among blood donors. Indian J Public Health Res Dev 2012;3:106-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Girish CJ, Chandrashekhar TN, Ramesh Babu K, Kantikar SM. ABO and Rhesus blood group distribution among Malnad region blood donors. J Res Rev Biomed Biotechnol 2011;2:25-30.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Wadhwa MK, Patel SM, Kothari DC, Pandey M, Patel DD. Distribution of ABO and Rhesus-D groups in Gujarat, India: A hospital based study. Indian J Paediatr Oncol 1998;19:137-41.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Sidhu S. Distribution of the ABO Blood Groups and Rh (D) factor among the Scheduled caste population of Punjab. J Anthropol 2003;5:203-4.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Periyavan S, Sangeetha SK, Marimuthu P, Manjunath BK, Seema DM. Distribution of ABO and Rhesus-D blood groups in and around Bangalore. Asian J Transfus Sci 2010;4:41.  Back to cited text no. 13
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Reddy KS, Sudha G. ABO and Rh (D) blood groups among the desuri Reddis of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh. J Anthropol 2009;11:237-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Das PK, Nair SC, Harris VK, Rose D, Mammen JJ, Bose YN, et al. Distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood groups among blood donors in a tertiary care centre in South India. Trop Doct 2001;31:47-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Patel PA, Patel SP, Shah JV, Oza HV. Frequency and distribution of blood groups in blood donors in western Ahmedabad - A hospital based study. Natl J Med Res 2012;2:202-6.  Back to cited text no. 16
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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