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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 33-37

Aging immunity, immunosenescence, or inflamm-aging: A comparative study of cytokines

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Medicine, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dhiraj Kishore
Department of Medicine, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jms.jms_32_18

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Context: Aging has impact on immune system both quantitatively as well as qualitatively, leading to deregulated response in different states ranging from infection, autoimmunity, inflammation, and excessive tissue damage. Aims: The present study is done to observe the immunosenescence-related changes in monocytes-/macrophages-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and interferon (IFN)-γ, evaluating the innate immunity of a group of healthy Indian elderly from a single institution. Settings and Design: The study was conducted on life-term prisoners in Central Jail, Varanasi, India, and the Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, among the three groups, namely study group (>70 years old), control Group 1 (60–70 years), and control Group 2 (30–40 years). Subjects and Methods: Mononuclear cells were separated, and NO production, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 from these cells were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after stimulation with LPS and IFN-γ. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean and standard deviation were calculated, and Student's t-test was applied. Results were considered statistically significant forP < 0.05. Results: A statistically significant rise in NO production (P < 0.001) was observed after stimulation as compared to control Groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). The study group showed a significant decrease in IL-1 production (P < 0.03) following stimulation. The basal TNF-α level was low in the study group, but there was a significant increase in TNF-α following stimulation. The basal level of IL-6 in the study group was higher than the control Group 1 (not significant, P = 0.21) but lower than the control Group 2 (not significant, P = 0.18). There were no significant inter- or intra-group changes in IL-6 level. Conclusions: There is a qualitative as well as quantitative defect in elderly monocytes/macrophages reflecting abnormal inflammatory response. This could be due to abnormal immunity with aging, which may be responsible for increased frequency of chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, asymptomatic infections, and Alzheimer's disease in geriatric population.

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